Since 1974, gray wolves have been listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). Following reintroduction efforts in Yellowstone National Park in the 1990s, wolves were delisted in 2011 in the Northern Rockies (Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, Idaho, Montana) and in 2012 in Wyoming and the Western Great Lakes (Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and portions of adjacent states). Despite this loss in protection, wolf populations have slowly moved west from the Northern Rockies and down from British Columbia, returning to the Pacific West.
This is only the beginning. Wolves have just begun to return to the Pacific West states of Washington, Oregon and California – even in places such as the Cascade Mountains. These wolves are vital to the health of our Pacific West ecosystems and warrant sound and careful protection. Losing federal or state protections could make this fragile population more vulnerable and potentially set back recovery in the entire Pacific West region.
Threats against the federal Endangered Species Act are underway. These threats will directly impact gray wolves. Though federal protection may be ending for wolves across the lower 48 states, Oregon, Washington and California have given statewide protection to wolves under state Endangered Species Acts. However, in November 2015, Oregon’s Fish & Wildlife Commission voted to remove and delist wolves from the state’s Endangered Species list. We will need your help to be a voice for wolves, and other wildlife, to speak up for their continued protection.
Wolves face many threats as they recover in the U.S. For many centuries, wolves have been trapped, shot and poisoned because people fear that wolves present a danger to cattle and sheep. Sometimes they were killed for their fur. By the 1970’s wolves were virtually exterminated from the continental United States.
As wolves recover in the U.S., their greatest threat will continue to be conflict with humans. Though wolves pose little threat to humans, they occasionally will prey on livestock causing economic loss to the livestock industry. As a result wolves may be killed in retaliation to livestock depredation. This threat and increasing hunting pressure in some states may cause difficulties for wolves as they recover.
Another serious threat to wolves is habitat loss from encroaching human development. Wolves need space to move and establish territories. These territories can vary in range but can be as large as 1,000 square miles. Space for wolves to move is vitally important to their recovery. As we grow in population and develop in areas close or in wolf habitat, wolves will be restricted in available high quality habitat. Human encroachment on wolf habitat will also bring people in closer proximity to wolves and may increase the frequency of human and wolf conflict.
As wolves recover throughout the rest of the nation, combating the public’s fear and misinformation about wolves will continue to be a vital part of creating a safe and stable landscape where wolves and humans can live together.
[tab title=”Pacific West Status”]
Wolves were once common throughout Washington, Oregon, and California ranging from the Cascades of Washington to Southern California. Pacific West wolves include descendants of wolves living in coastal British Columbia, as well as the northern Rockies. Scientists have pointed to the fact that some wolves returning to the Pacific West are genetically distinct from the reintroduced northern Rockies wolves.
Over time, these wolves have adapted to local and changing climatic and habitat conditions, creating a unique genetic profile. At the beginning of each year, the Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife and the Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife announce the findings of their annual gray wolf population surveys. As of December 2017, there are at least 124 confirmed wolves in Oregon (12 confirmed packs and 11 of those packs had successful breeding pairs). In Washington, as of December 2017, there are at least 122 confirmed wolves (22 confirmed packs and 14 successful breeding pairs). The Lassen pack is California’s second pack, and the only currently known wolf pack in the state. This pack was confirmed in Spring 2017. California’s first known wolf pack, the Shasta pack, was confirmed in August 2015, but with no verified detections of this pack between late November 2015 and early May 2016, the California Department of Fish & Wildlife believes the pack no longer exists.
As wolves continue their return to the Pacific West, California, Oregon, and Washington are taking critical steps to help wolves recover. In 2005, Oregon completed a state wolf conservation and management plan. It went through a five-year review process in 2010 where tweaks were made to the plan. Another anticipated review process was to take place in 2015, and this has now been delayed by four years with an unclear timeline for completing this review process. In 2011, Washington completed their state wolf conservation and management plan. California released its final wolf conservation plan in late 2016. Though wolves are only just beginning to recover in California, an administrative petition to list the wolf under California’s Endangered Species Act was filed by conservation groups in early 2012 and after two years of public hearings, reports from the state agency, significant public testimony and scientific peer reviews, the state fish and game commission voted in June of 2014 to fully protect wolves as a state-endangered species.
Wolves once roamed through parts of California’s Coastal Range, however, in the early 1900s, hunters decimated wolves’ natural prey and, eventually with the help of state-enacted bounties, eradicated wolves. By the middle of the 1920s, wolves were completely eradicated from the state, with the last trapped wolf documented in 1924.
After an absence of nearly 90 years, wolves are beginning to return to the state. In 2011, a lone male wolf known as OR-7 dispersed from the Imnaha pack in northeast Oregon down into California’s Modoc Plateau. OR-7’s journey moved California into action to prepare for the gray wolf’s inevitable return to the state.
In 2012, conservation organizations petitioned the California Fish and Game Commission to list the gray wolf as endangered, initiating a process to determine whether gray wolves in California will be afforded state protections as they recover. Despite the overwhelming legal and scientific evidence demonstrating that wolves should be listed, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife recommended to the Commission that wolves not be listed. However, science and the law prevailed and on June 4, 2014, the Commission voted to fully protect wolves under California’s Endangered Species Act. California then convened a group of stakeholders to draft a Wolf Conservation Plan (Plan) and the same group of stakeholders provided input during this process. In the middle of this drafting process, California welcomed home its first wolf pack, the Shasta pack (at least seven pack members), in early August 2015. This is the first wolf pack to return to the state in nearly a century.
Shortly after wolves’ return to California, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) released their draft Plan at the end of 2015 and the final Plan was released in late 2016. Read the two-part Plan below:
Gray wolves were once common in Oregon, occupying most of the state. However, a deliberate effort to eradicate the species was successful by the late 1940s. Wolves were listed in Oregon as endangered under the State ESA in 1987. After an absence of over half a century, wolves began to take their first tentative steps towards recovery. Having dispersed from Idaho, the native species is once again trying to make a home in Oregon with three confirmed wolves documented in Oregon between 1999-2000.
In 2008, the Imnaha pack was confirmed as Oregon’s first pack since the eradication nearly 60 years ago. In a recent report from the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, it was confirmed that as of the end of 2016, there are at least 112 confirmed wolves, consisting of 12 packs and 8 breeding pairs. The vast majority of these wolves reside in northeastern Oregon and some packs reside in the southern part of the state.
In anticipation of the return of wolves, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with a diverse stakeholder group, completed a wolf conservation and management plan in 2005. It went through a five-year review in 2010 where tweaks were made to the plan. A legal challenge by conservation organizations to the state’s lethal control program in fall 2011 led to a settlement agreement in summer 2013 among some of the plaintiffs, the state and the cattlemen.
This resulted in more agency transparency with its wolf management program, the development of wolf/livestock conflict deterrence plans in areas of wolf activity, and the required use of documented proactive, non-lethal conflict reduction measures in order for a depredation to qualify toward the “chronic depredation” standard which became defined as four depredation by the same wolf or wolves within a six-month period.
In 2015, Oregon’s wolf plan and wolf populations face significant potential changes and challenges. The terms of the legal settlement expired and now Oregon’s wolves in the eastern half of the state face significantly less protective standards before lethal control can be resorted to when there are instances of wolf-livestock conflict. Now there need be only two depredations in an undefined period of time, before wolves can be killed for causing livestock losses, and the requirements for what nonlethal conflict-prevention measure ranchers must employ before wolves can be killed are also less stringent. In 2015, the Oregon wolf plan will also be undergoing a required five-year review, and the conservation community will keep the public apprised of when and how to weigh in. Finally, because Oregon’s wolf population reached a certain number of breeding pairs at the end of 2014, the wolf plan allows for the state fish and wildlife agency (ODFW) to recommend whether the Oregon Fish and Wildlife Commission should initiate a process to remove wolves from the protections of the Oregon Endangered Species Act.
Delisting wolves before they have achieved greater population numbers and much greater distribution across suitable wolf habitat in the state is premature. The conservation community has already weighed in to oppose ODFW’s delisting recommendation and continues to keep the public apprised of opportunities for written comments and testimony to give to the Commission. Despite these efforts, the Commission voted to delist wolves from the state’s Endangered Species Act on November 9, 2015.
Early settlers described gray wolves as common to Washington and speculated that one or more wolf packs may have made their homes in each of the major river valleys in the state. By the 1900s, after years of animosity towards predators and government-sponsored bounty payments, wolves were gone from much of the Northwest. Following the federal government’s listing of gray wolves as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), Washington followed suit by giving wolves endangered species status under the Washington State ESA in 1980.
Wolves have begun returning naturally to Washington, filtering in across the borders from Idaho and southward from the wilds of British Columbia. Washington’s Lookout pack was the first to return in 2008. After a broad stakeholder process, in 2011 the Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission unanimously approved a conservation and management plan for wolves. This provides protection for recovering gray wolves and offers ample options for livestock owners and hunters who may be affected by the return of wolves.
According to the annual survey from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, as of the end of 2016, there are 20 confirmed packs (and 10 breeding pairs) in the state and a total of at least 115 wolves. In November 2015, Washington state officials announced the confirmation of a new pack, the Loup Loup pack, in North-Central Washington.
The state continues to make tremendous forward progress as it convenes collaborative group meetings among livestock producers, conservationists, state agency representatives and landowners to work towards conflict resolution and promotion of co-existence and non-lethal practices as it relates to wolf conservation and management.
[tab title=”Federal Status”]
In June 2013, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service put forth a proposal to delist wolves in the continental U.S. after conducting a status review for the species. This proposal concludes that federal protections are no longer necessary and that gray wolves have recovered in the continental U.S.
If ESA protections are removed, management of wolves will be handed over to state agencies, which may result in increased lethal actions, legal hunts, and other activities that could prevent gray wolves from recovering in states where they are barely struggling to gain a foothold. However, the US Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed continued protection and expanded recovery of the Mexican gray wolf in the Southwest U.S.
Wolves will face deleterious effects from losing federal protections. States with significant habitat for wolves, such as California, Colorado, and Utah, could face serious obstacles in helping wolves reestablish themselves. In response to the USFWS delisting proposal, conservation organizations, scientists, politicians, and concerned citizens are asking the USFWS and Secretary Sally Jewell to reconsider their proposal.
Particularly, in the Pacific West, wolves will face even greater obstacles since their recovery may now be short circuited by the agency’s action.
Here are a few key reasons federal protections for wolves in the Pacific West are important:
- Wolves perform a crucial role in maintaining wildlife diversity and ecosystem function. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s decision to turn their backs on wolves means millions of acres of habitat will be without the benefits from wolves for years or decades to come – and some areas may never see the return of wolves.
- Wolves west of the Rockies are few in number and at a fragile stage. Loss of protection now could put at risk “seed” packs like the Teanaway and Wenatchee Packs in Washington State that are critical to establishing a viable population in the Pacific West.
- Wolves are still dispersing into their historical range in the Pacific West states of Washington, Oregon and California. In 2011, a lone wolf known as OR-7 dispersed from the Imnaha Pack in Oregon to wander through California’s southern Cascades and Modoc Plateau. OR-7 was the first wolf to enter the state of California in nearly 90 years. Federal protection under the Endangered Species Act allows for the continued safety of wolves as they return to their historic range in the Pacific West.
- Though some states in the Pacific West region such as Washington and Oregon have state plans that call for recovery in the Cascades/Coast region, California is just now developing its state wolf plan and many other states with good wolf habitat but no wolves yet are lacking recovery plans altogether. Furthermore, state penalties for poaching a wolf are minimal and subject to local politics. Without the stricter penalties that come with Endangered Species Act protection (up to $50,000 and a year in jail), discouraging illegal killing is much more of a challenge.
- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service should maintain federal protections for wolves across the Lower 48 and recognize Pacific West wolves as a distinct population. This would provide meaningful protection where adequate state recovery plans are still lacking.